Beading Terms Defined


Beading patterns can be a little confusing if you are a complete novice. Like any other craft, beading has its own language and terminology that might seem strange when you start out.

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Here I’ve attempted to explain some of the most common beading terms that will crop up over and over again.

If there is some terminology that I haven’t covered here, then please leave a comment in the comments box and I will add it to the post.

If you are a beading tutor and you find this information helpful, please feel free to share it with your students.

stringing materials for beading

Wingspan or Arm-span

A lot of beading patterns start by telling you how much thread to work with. This may be labelled in traditional feet, inches, metres or centimetres. However, it can often be stated as a ‘wingspan’ or ‘arm-span’, or some multiple of this measurement. This basically means the length from hand to hand if you stand with your arms out-stretched.

So, take your reel of thread in one hand, take the end of the thread in the other hand. Then, move your hands apart until your length of thread stretches from one hand to the other. You can cut the thread from the reel at this point.

Note: some people define an arm-span as the distance along one arm, rather than the distance from hand to hand.

Why this length?

This is commonly regarded as an optimum length of thread with which to work. Once you have threaded the needle and pulled the thread through into place, you should be able to stretch out your working arm (the hand holding the needle) and this will pull your thread all the way through your work. This should apply on every stitch you make.

This length is long enough to be able to complete a lot of rows, (maybe an entire project), without needing to join a new thread. So, this is also a huge bonus.

If a pattern does not specify how much thread to use, or if it talks about a ‘comfortable length of thread’, then your wingspan of thread is probably the best length to use.


Tail Thread

This is a very common beading term. It refers to the short length of thread that is left at the beginning of your work.

Whenever you start a piece of beadwork, you will not be able to thread the beads to the very end of your thread. So, the little length that is left is called the tail thread.

Using the tail thread for guidance

Some designers show it in their diagrams. Look at the netting diagram above. The tail thread is that narrow line protruding from the very left-hand side of the beads.

When diagrams do show the tail thread, this can be a handy guide to allow you to check that you are adding beads in the right direction. Check if new beads in the diagram are moving towards or away from the tail thread. Then, check that you are doing the same.

Some pattern instructions also use it as a reference. For example: ‘at the end of the row, you should be exiting from the same bead as your tail thread.’

In some patterns, you will be told how long your tail thread should be, but this is not always the case. So, if your beading pattern doesn’t mention your tail thread, what should you do?

Tail thread length

Well, the optimum length for a tail thread is about 6″ (15cm). This is long enough for you to hold as you work and also long enough to stitch in at the end of your project (see the blog on how to start and finish beading threads).

Learn even count Peyote stitch, Katie Dean, My World of Beads

For some stitches, like the first rows of a strip of Peyote stitch, you will need to pull on the tail thread to get your beads to sit in place correctly. So, if your thread is too short, you won’t have anything to pull on. Conversely, if your thread is too long, you will find it just gets tangled up in your beads as you work.

In some beading patterns, you will need a longer tail thread as you will use this to complete a later step. For example, you may use the tail thread to attach a clasp to a piece of jewellery. So make sure you note if a pattern mentions a specific length for a tail thread and follow the instructions carefully.

Finishing tail threads

Tail threads can become very annoying once they have served their useful purpose. They can get caught in your beadwork as  you go, so if your tail thread is not going to be used later in the pattern, I advise you to stitch it in once you have about six rows of beadwork completed. I keep a spare needle on my beading mat so that I can just use this to thread onto the tail thread and finish it off without having to unthread the needle from my working thread and then re-thread it.

Working Thread

You may have gathered by now, the working thread is the end of thread to which your needle is attached. It may simply be referred to as ‘thread’. However, in some patterns the designer will make the distinction between the working thread and the tail thread.

Step Up

This must be one of the most confusing beading terms. It does not apply to all beading stitches, but you will find it commonly used in Peyote stitch, netting and Herringbone. (If you’re not sure what those techniques are, check out the ‘Beading Techniques’ section on the menu).

In most cases, it applies to the circular and tubular versions of these techniques. It is basically a term to define the action you will take when you finish one row, to get yourself into the correct position to start the next row. If you think of it as being like the join between two beading rows, it will really help when you are working. So, you will finish one row of beading, then ‘step up’ to manoeuvre into position ready to begin the next row.

The step up does not involve picking up new beads, so you must complete it before you add any more beads. Once you become skilled in the techniques, you will be able to do this without thinking.

Starting Tubular Peyote

How to step up

The step up gets its name from the fact that you are mostly passing in a slightly upwards direction through one or more beads.

Take a look at the photo above. This is a Peyote stitch tube and the final row that has been stitched with blue beads. In each stitch in this row, the beader will have picked up a blue bead and passed through the next green bead.

The photo shows the beader adding the final stitch in this row. So, the last blue bead is on the needle and the needle is passing through the green bead. This action completes the row.

The beader in this photo is also making the step up at the same time. So, by passing on through the next blue bead, the beader is getting into position to start a new row.

In the next row, the beader will be picking up a new bead and passing through the next blue bead.

The step up will look a little different in each technique, but the principle is always the same. You will pass through some existing part of the beadwork in order to get into position to start adding new beads.

Learn even count Peyote stitch, Katie Dean, My World of Beads

Stop Bead or Bead Stopper

This is simply a bead that you will use when you start your work. You don’t need it for every technique. But anything where you are stringing a series of beads will require a stop bead to begin with.

Quite simply, the stop bead prevents the beads from falling off the thread while you are working.

You can use literally any bead as a stop bead. You will remove it at the end of your project. So, it helps to pick a bead that is different so you don’t get it mixed up with the beads in your project.

Never tie a stop bead on because you will always need to be able to remove it again.

You can also purchase a little gadget called a bead stopper. This does the job of your stop bead, by clamping onto your thread. So, it is easy to remove when you are ready.

Beading Tension

If you are already familiar with other needle crafts, like knitting, crochet or sewing, you will probably recognise the term ‘tension’. This basically refers to the amount of force applied as a new stitch is created.

If you apply a lot of force, the new stitch will sit tightly against previous stitches. While, if you apply a small amount of force, the new stitch will be looser.

The principle is exactly the same in beading. When you add a new bead, you will apply a certain amount of force to your needle and thread to pull the bead into place.

So, if you pull very hard on the thread, your bead will snuggle in firmly against its fellows. If you do this consistently, then your beads will weave together in a clear pattern, whichever stitch you are using.

However, if you do not take care to pull the bead tightly into place, then it can be hard to make out the pattern you are creating. Then it is easier to make mistakes.

How do you define tension?

To some extent, beading tension is natural to an individual. Some people have naturally tight tension and others have naturally loose tension.

If your natural tension is neither particularly tight, nor particularly loose, then you will be fine. But an excess either way can cause problems.

Those beaders who have naturally loose tension will find that their beads do not always sit exactly in place. So, they may struggle to see where they should be stitching.

Those beaders with very tight tension may have problems with thread. If the thread is pulled too tightly through the beads, it may snap.

Firstly, it is being rubbed a little more on the edges of the beads when the beadwork is worn, so that can cause pressure over time.

Secondly, although a lot of beading threads have some natural stretch to them, this is finite. So, if you stretch them too hard as you work, repeatedly, they will eventually snap.


The bad news is, it can be hard to correct poor tension.

Tips for correcting tension

If you suffer from loose tension, there are some stitches in which you can pass through the beads in a stitch twice, instead of just once. This will help to improve the tension. Right Angle Weave is a particularly good stitch for this.

Mostly, though, you just need to practise awareness and think about how hard you are pulling on your thread as you go. I have seen a lot of beginners improve naturally over time as they become more confident in working with beads. So, don’t despair!

Over to you…

Armed with these handy tips, you are now ready to try out your own beading projects. You can find plenty here to get you started.

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10 Responses

  1. Britt says:

    Very usefull, thank you so much ;o)

  2. Anja says:

    Thanks so much for posting this I needed to know about the step up but learnt more!
    Thanks again!

  3. Joyce Ash says:

    What does the beading abbreviation “nc” mean

    • beadflowers says:

      Can you give me the context please – I would need to see the sentence in which it appears to be able to help you. Some abbreviations are personal to individual designers (and should be explained in the tutorial), rather than being “industry standard” abbreviations.

  4. Rita Spratlen says:

    I am seeing the nc term used in a row to make a box. I don’t know what it means?

    • beadflowers says:

      This is not a “standard” beading term. It is something coined by Julia Pretl, and is specific to her patterns. It is explained in the introductory section of her book and it means no corner. If you need more information about this, please refer to Julia’s book, thank you.

  5. Rita Jean Spratlen says:

    I have her book and It still is confusing. I also don’t know what CBC is before a row that says D (1) A (1) D (1) x4 which I do understand. But not the CBC for it is opposite the colors stated????

    • beadflowers says:

      I cannot provide assistance with patterns from other designers. This article is relating to generalised terms that are used throughout the beading community. Your questions are relating to terms that are specific to a single designer, so you would need to contact her for help, or just re-read the book until you begin to understand better – learning new techniques is a process that takes time and practice.

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